The American defeat inflicted by the Japanese fleet on Pearl Harbor is considered one of the biggest military catastrophes in the history of the USA. In fact, the losses of the Pacific Fleet were not as severe as usually thought, and Japan made a number of mistakes during the attack, which did not have the desired effect. Below there is an explanation of why the Pearl Harbor attack did not violate the foundations of the American war machine, but only became the beginning of the end for the Empire of Japan.

The Great War between Poland and the Teutonic Order will always be associated with the great victory of Poland at Grunwald. However, it is worth recalling the Koronowo battle, which took place three months later and became exceptional not only because it was another great Polish victory, but also because it was in fact a knights’ tournament, where warriors on both sides were fighting honorary duels with each other, and even two breaks during which they played songs about the courage of their opponents.

The German offensive code-named “Zitadelle” carried out in the area of Kursk on the Eastern Front in the Soviet Union led to the largest armoured battle fought during World War II. Thousands of tanks, guns, planes and almost 3 million soldiers stood in front of each other. It was also the first test for new German medium tanks – PzKpfw V Panther and a demonstration of the strength of heavy tanks, PzKpfw VI Tiger.

The British describe Trafalgar as the most important naval battle in the history of mankind. There is certainly some exaggeration in this, but it must be admitted that this battle has affected the later fate of almost the whole of Europe. It was there that Napoleon’s naval power was devastated, and the brilliant manoeuvre of Admiral Nelson, who died in the battle, secured the United Kingdom’s reign on the seas for over 100 years.

For many of us Scotland is synonymous with Mel Gibson’s “Braveheart” movie. This film brought us closer to the Scottish War of Independence, and although the Stirling battle there looked different in reality than on screen, it helped us get to know the silhouette of William Wallace and the other Scottish freedom fighters. Let’s look at how well the Scots dealt with the Englishmen over the Stirling Bridge.

The Battle of Shiroyama enrolled in the annals of history as a battle, where the last 500 samurai in the history of Japan heroically fought 30 000 Japan’s goverment soldiers, and died in defense of their fading values and traditions.. Like presented in the film “The Last Samurai”, in the last battle the samurai charged enemies armed with only swords, while the Emperor’s men were equipped with modern weapons, including rifles and artillery.

Not everyone knows that at the beginning of the 15th century the Czechs rebelled against the Roman Catholic Church and founded their own religious movement called Hussitism. The escalation of the conflict led to armed crusades on their lands, but the Hussite armies brutally defeated practically everyone who dared to enter their lands. The effectiveness of their tactics and command was so great that German and Silesian knights were capable of escaping from the battlefield at the very sight of Czech combat wagons.